乳癌
(Breast Cancer)
子宮頸癌
(Cervical Cancer)

乳房檢查 (Screening)

自我檢查:

檢查乳房的第一步是每月進行自我檢查。二十歲以上的女性,應在每月進行自我檢查,未停經女性應在月經開始後第7至10天進行,停經者則應在每月同一日進行。
早期乳癌的症狀並不容易察覺。若出現以下變化可能是乳癌的症狀:

    • 乳房出現硬塊;
    • 乳房的大小或形狀有所改變;
    • 乳房或乳頭皮膚出現異樣(例如:變紅、呈鱗片狀、變厚或猶如「橙皮」);
    • 乳頭附近出疹;
    • 乳頭內陷;
    • 乳頭有分泌物;
    • 乳房或腋下新出現持續的不適或疼痛;
    • 腋下有新增硬塊或皮膚變厚;

乳房X光造影檢查
乳房X光造影是用X光拍攝乳房影像。檢查過程中,乳房須要放於兩塊儀器夾板之間,擠壓乳房令乳房組織平均分佈,令影像更清晰。檢查期間婦女可能會感到短暫不適或痛楚。一般而言,乳房X光造影檢查是安全的,在過程中只會釋出少量輻射。建議40歲以上的婦女,每一至兩年進行一次乳房X光造影檢查。

超聲波掃描
乳房超聲波是一種安全、無痛的檢查,適用於鑑別乳房腫塊,任何年齡的女性皆適用,特別是更年期前的年青婦女。因為臨床研究顯示,停經前婦女之乳房密度比更年期後婦女之乳房密度較高;此外,亞洲婦女乳房組織平均密度亦較西方婦女乳房組織一般高,因此,醫生一般會為本港女性安排乳房造影及超聲波掃描檢查。

有用連結:
香港家庭計劃指導會:https://www.famplan.org.hk/zh
胡寶星夫人婦女診斷治療中心: http://www.obsgyn.hku.hk/clinicalServ/lhww/main-c.htm


Breast Cancer Screening

Self examination
The first-line of defence against breast cancer is to perform the monthly breast self-examination. Women over the age of twenty should examine their breasts every month. Women before reaching menopause should check their breasts from the 7th – 10th day after their period starts, while those who have reached post-menopause stage, should perform self-examination for the breasts on the same day every calendar month.

The symptoms of breast cancer may not be easily detected at an early stage. Any of the following changes in the breast can be a symptom of breast cancer:

    • a breast lump;
    • any change in the size or shape of the breast;
    • any change in skin texture of the breast or nipple (e.g. red, scaly, thickened or "orange-skin" appearance);
    • rash around the nipple;
    • nipple retraction;
    • discharge from any one of both nipples;
    • new and persistent discomfort or pain in the breast or the armpit;
    • a new lump or thickening in the armpit;

Mammogram
Mammography is widely used as a screening tool for breast cancer. It is an X-ray examination of the breasts. During mammography, the breast is pressed between 2 plates to make the breast be flat, thus spreading the breast tissue evenly, in order to obtain a clear and accurate image. Some women may find it uncomfortable or painful but the discomfort is usually temporary. Generally, mammography screening is a safe investigation land only a very small dose of radiation is used in the procedure. It is recommended for women aged 40 and above to have this screening exercise every one to two yearly.

Ultrasound
Ultrasound examination of the breasts is also a safe and painless investigation, useful in evaluation of any breast lumps. Women of all ages are suitable for this examination, especially pre-menopausal young women whose breast density is usually higher than that of post-menopausal women. Furthermore, Asian women also have a relatively higher breast density than the western population, and thus we usually offer both ultrasound and mammogram for our local women screening programme.

Useful link:
The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong: https://www.famplan.org.hk/en
Lady Helen Woo Women’s Diagnositic and Treatment Centre: http://www.obsgyn.hku.hk/clinicalServ/lhww/main.htm