乳癌
(Breast Cancer)
子宮頸癌
(Cervical Cancer)

什麼是子宮頸細胞檢驗?

子宮頸細胞檢驗(又稱柏氏抹片)是一種簡單而快捷的篩查測試方法。醫生或護士會將一個窺器放進婦女的陰道內,然後用小刮棒或刷子於子宮頸的表面位置抽取一些細胞樣本,過程只需幾分鐘便可,而樣本則會送到化驗室檢驗。

子宮頸細胞檢查,相片摘自香港防癌會
子宮頸癌教育小冊子

 

哪些婦女需要子宮頸癌篩查?

    • 子宮頸癌篩查是為一般沒有症狀的婦女而設。
    • 25 至 64 歲而曾有性經驗的婦女,不論婚姻狀況,都應該定期接受子宮頸癌篩查。
    • 65 歲或以上而曾有性經驗並且從未接受過子宮頸癌篩查的婦女,即使已停經、多年沒有性行為或已做了結紮手術,都應該與醫生商量接受檢驗。
    • 21 至 24 歲而曾有性經驗的女性,若有患子宮頸癌的風險因素(例如有多個性伴侶、吸 煙、免疫力減弱等),應諮詢醫生的意見,評估是否需要接受子宮頸癌篩查。
    • 婦女即使已接種 HPV 疫苗,仍須定期接受 子宮頸癌篩查,因為HPV疫苗並不能預防所有類型的 HPV 感染,亦不能清除已感染的病毒。
    • 從來沒有性行為的女性不需要接受子宮頸癌篩查。
    • 婦女如已因良性疾病切除子宮及子宮頸,同時沒有子宮頸細胞病變的病歷,則可停止子宮頸癌篩查。

如有疑問,應請教醫生。

我應何時接受子宮頸癌篩查?

    • 所有曾經有性經驗的婦女應該從 25 歲開始定期接受子宮頸癌篩查。
    • 如果第一次子宮頸細胞檢驗結果正常,你應在一年之後進行第二次檢驗。
    • 如果第二次檢驗結果也是正常,你可每三年接受一次檢驗。
    • 如果出現任何症狀(例如不正常的陰道出血),即使最近一次檢驗結果是正常,亦應盡快求診。

子宮頸細胞檢驗結果代表什麼?
大約 90% 的子宮頸細胞檢驗結果是「陰性」 (正常),表示你的子宮頸沒有發現不正常的細胞,但你仍須定期接受篩查。

「陽性」或「不正常」的結果表示子宮頸細胞出現一些變化,但不一定代表你已患上癌症。大部分不正常的細胞是由於感染 HPV 病毒所致。少數婦女可能有癌前細胞病變而需要接受治療以阻止癌症形成。醫生會建議 你如何跟進或需要作進一步檢查。

請注意,子宮頸細胞檢驗是一種篩查測試,若檢驗結果顯示細胞有病變,你須接受進一步檢查(例如陰道鏡檢查),醫生會確定病變的範圍 和嚴重程度,從而提供適當的治療。

有用連結:
香港家庭計劃指導會:https://www.famplan.org.hk/zh
胡寶星夫人婦女診斷治療中心: http://www.obsgyn.hku.hk/clinicalServ/lhww/main-c.htm


What is cervical smear:

The cervical smear is a very safe test that only takes a few minutes. The doctor or nurse will insert an instrument (called speculum) into your vagina to allow visualization of your cervix which is located deep inside the vagina. A small piece of wooden spatula or plastic brush will then be inserted through the speculum to obtain some cells sample from the surface of the cervix.

Who needs cervical cancer screening?

    • Cervical cancer screening is for healthy women who have no symptom.
    • Women aged 25-64 years who ever had sex, irrespective of marital status, are recommended to receive regular cervical cancer screening.
    • Women aged 65 years or above who ever had sex and have never had cervical cancer screening should talk to the doctor about having a cervical smear, even if they no longer have periods, haven’t had sex for many years or had sterilisation.
    • Women aged below 25 years who ever had sex and risk factors for cervical cancer (such as multiple sexual partners, smoking, weakened immunity), should seek advice from doctors concerning the need for cervical cancer screening.
    • Women who have received HPV vaccination still need regular cervical cancer screening because HPV vaccination does not protect against the HPV types not included in the vaccine, nor against existing HPV infections.
    • Women who have never had sex do not need cervical cancer screening.
    • Women who have hysterectomy with removal of cervix for benign diseases and without prior history of cervical changes can discontinue screening.

If in doubt, please consult the doctor

When should I have cervical cancer screening?

    • All women who ever had sex should have regular cervical cancer screening starting from the age of 25.
    • If your first cervical smear result is normal, you should have the second smear 1 year later.
    • If your second smear result is also normal, you should repeat smears every 3 years.
    • If you have any symptom (such as abnormal vaginal bleeding), you should see a doctor promptly, even if your last smear result was normal.

What do the cervical smear results mean?
Around 90% of the cervical smear results are “negative” (normal), meaning that no abnormal cell is found on your cervix. But you still need regular screening.

A “positive” or “abnormal” result usually means there are some changes in the cells of your cervix. It does not necessarily mean that you already have cancer. Most of these changes are due to HPV infection. A small number of women may have pre-cancerous cells which call for treatment to prevent them from turning cancerous. Your doctor will advise you on the necessary follow-up and investigations.

Please note that cervical smear is a screening test. If the result shows cell changes, further examination (e.g. colposcopy) will be required to identify the extent and severity of abnormal cells and help guide subsequent management.

Useful link:
The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong: https://www.famplan.org.hk/en
Lady Helen Woo Women’s Diagnositic and Treatment Centre: http://www.obsgyn.hku.hk/clinicalServ/lhww/main.htm