The booklet highlights the latest news about breast, endometrial, cervical and endometrial cancers. It introduces various types of cancer cases and is of reference value to cancer detection and screening. Readers would be able to learn about the incidence, cause for incidence, radiological investigation and relevant treatment through the explanation in the booklet given by senior specialist doctors and dieticians.Back to Homepage Click here to download the booklets
Ovarian cancer is not only the 6th most common cancer among women in Hong Kong but also ranked 7th in the top 10 cancer causing death in women. In 2016, there were a total of 598 new cases of ovarian cancer in Hong Kong and it is expected to remain on the rise.
Despite the fact that the cause of ovarian cancer is still unknown, a woman is at high risk for the cancer if she: is over the age of 45, has not given birth to any children, infertile, started menstruating at an early age, experienced late-onset menopause, with a grandmother, mother, daughter or sister with breast, ovarian cancer and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. It is very easy for women to ignore ovarian cancer, since there are no obvious symptoms of it.
Common diagnostic tests include: transvaginal ultrasound, CT scan, MRI and X-rays
Treatment options include: surgical operation, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Back to Homepage Click here to download the booklets
Fallopian Tube Cancer is less common and accounts for 5% of gynaecological cancer. The majority of the fallopian tube cancer patients are women aged 40 to 60. It mainly falls into two categories: (a) Primary Fallopian Tube Cancer which originates in fallopian tube and (b) Secondary Fallopian Tube Cancer which starts in other parts of the body, such as ovaries and endometrium. Fallopian Tube Cancer does not come with obvious symptoms. Abnormal vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain are the most common symptoms.
Common diagnostic tests include: pelvic examination, blood tests and pelvic ultrasound
Treatment options include: surgical operation, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Back to Homepage
Vulvar cancer is less common and accounts for 5% of gynaecological cancer, occurring mainly in mature women aged 50 or above. The development of vulvar cancer in young women is due primarily to Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, whilst mature women develop vulvar cancer due mainly to lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA). Smokers, cervical cancer patients and HIV carriers are at high risk for Vulvar cancer.
Common symptoms include: constant itching in vulvar, lump(s), pain, heat, painful urination, blood in urine and abnormal vaginal discharge
Diagnostic tests include: pelvic examination, tissue tests
Treatment options include: surgical operations, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.Back to Homepage
Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer, accounting for 2% of gynaecological cancer. Women aged 60 to 65 are the majority of vaginal cancer patients. Most of the vaginal cancers spread (metastasized) from the cervix or endometrium. Vaginal cancer is mainly associated with herpes, Human papillomavirus (HPV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and radiation.
Common symptoms of vaginal cancer include: abnormal vaginal bleeding, abnormal vaginal discharge with foul smelling, low back pain, abdominal pain, difficult urination and bowel movements. At present, surgical operation and radiotherapy are the primary treatment for vaginal cancer. Chemotherapy is also used together with radiotherapy depending on the conditions of the patients.Back to Homepage
Cervical cancer is the 7th most common cancer among women in Hong Kong. It is also ranked 9th in the top 10 fatal types of cancer in women. In 2016, there were a total of 510 new cases and 151 fatal cases of the cancer.
An international clinical study has found that almost all cervical cancers are caused by Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Since HPV is mainly transmitted through sexual contact, women who have had sexual intercourse would be diagnosed with cervical cancer. The risk factors for cervical cancer include HPV infection, early initiation of sexual activity, multiple sex partners, sexually transmitted diseases, immunodeficiency, smoking, chronic kidney disease and AIDs. Three are no obvious symptoms of cervical cancer.
Common symptoms of the cancer include: abnormal vaginal bleeding, difficult urination and bowel movements.
Common diagnosis tests include: Pap Smear and Colposcopy.
Treatment options include: surgical operation, radiotherapy, chemotherapy.Back to Homepage Click here to download the booklets
Endometrial cancer, also known as corpus carcinoma or uterine cancer, is the 4th most common cancer among women in Hong Kong. It is also ranked 12th in the top fatal types of cancer in women. In 2014, there were a total of 997 new cases of the cancer. The figures show that there is an upward trend in endometrial cancer incidence.
The cause of endometrial cancer still remains unknown. However, it is believed that obesity, heredity, long-term consequences of estrogen, diabetes, high blood pressure and so on could be attributable to such cancer, occurring commonly in women aged 50 to 64 years.
Common symptoms of the cancer include: abnormal vaginal bleeding, thin but stinky vaginal discharge, abdominal pain, uterus enlarging and anemia.
Diagnostic tests include: transvaginal ultrasound, cervical screening, CT and MRI scanning.
Treatment options include: surgical operations, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and
hormone therapy.Back to Homepage Click here to download the booklets
Breast cancer is the most common cancer with the third highest mortality rate among women in Hong Kong. It is particularly noteworthy that there were 4,108 new cases of breast cancer and a total number of 702 people died of the cancer in Hong Kong.Back to Homepage Click here to download the booklets
Please visit the website of HKACS for downloading other cancer-related booklets and information, such as home care for cancer patients, pain control and dietary management.Back to Homepage Click here to visit HKACS’s website